Waec 2019 Agric Science Obj And Essay Answers – May/June Expo Runs

Agric OBJ:

Flushing is a management term for providing high quality feeds, usually grains prior to the start of the breeding to increase reproductive performance.
Castration is defined as the destruction or removal of the testes, epididymis, and a part of spermatic cord from a male animal e.g. ram, buck, bull.
Culling; is the separation of animals from a herd because of age, barrenness, incurable illness, or serious physical defect.

-it increase animal resistance to disease
-it improve the animals yield
-it increase the strength of animalals
-it weakness the size and weight of animals
-it prevent spread of disease
-it reduces lost of productions

-for measuring angular distance
-for making angles
-for measuring distance
-for measuring size of land

Floriculture is the Branch of agriculture which deals with production of ornamental plants like flowers while agriculture deals with production of fish and other aquatic animals.

Spacing; is the distance between the plant stands in order to allow proper ventilation within plant farm. While
Thinning; this is refer to as the removal of excess plant or weak plants to allow the healthy one to germinate.

Elaeis guineensis
(ii) Tenera
seed and are germinated prior to planting by moistening them and and placing them in a small box within a polyethylene bag placed in a germinator.
deep soil and stable high temperatures (30–32°C/86–89.6°F for at least 80 days) for optimum productivity.
9m * 9m
(i)blast disease
(ii)freckle disease

(i)They serve as source of raw materials to the industries for both rural and urban centers in West Africa.
(ii) they also provide employment opportunities to thousand of people.
(iii)provide employment opportunities to thousand of people.
(iv)provide food, medicine, energy, shelter and recreational facilities for people in both rural and urban centers in West Africa.
(v)Forest serves as a buffer in natural disasters like flood and rainfalls
(vii) Protecting watersheds and reducing or slowing the amount of erosion and chemicals that reach waterways

Apiculture is rearing and management of honeybees for commercial production of honey.


=Siam weed
=Water leaf

=Agaratum conizoids
=Chiomolaena odorata
=Talinum triangulare


Physical factor
– Erosion
– Slope
– Temperature
Economical factors
– Insufficient fund to acquire land
– Land tenure system
– Land use and reformation

– It leads to unpleasant odours
– It renders pond water undrinkable
– It leads to suffocation of aquatic animals such as fish
– It leads to eutrophication

– Sewage should be properly treated before discharge into pond
– Avoid indiscriminate sewage disposal on water body
– Sanction should be placed on use of chemical for fishing
– There should be regulations in the use of chemical fertilizer on the farm

CROPS | Classification base of life Cycle

Mango |Perennial
Rice |Annual
Cotton |Perennial
Pepper |Annual
Soya bean|Annual
Oil palm |Perennial
Yam |Annual
Tomato |Ephemeras
Rubber |Perennial
Ginger |Annual
Cocoa |Perennial
Cowpea |Annual
Carrot |Biennial

Soil Component | Percentage volume
(i) soil water | 25%
(ii) Organic matter | 5%
(iii)Inorganic mater| 45%
(iv) Soil air | 25%

[Pick Any THREE]
(i) Ring method
(ii) Foliar method
(iii) Brocasting method
(iv) Row Application
(v) Band Placement

Useful life of the tractor
= 9years
Salvage value = D3000.00
Total depreciation = cost price – salvage value
= (12000-3000)
= D9000.00
Annual depreciation = Total depreciation /useful life
= 9000/9
= D1000.00

A demand schedule is a table which shows the different quantities of a commodity which consumers are willing to buy at various prices at a particular time.
Supply curve is a graphical representation of the correlation between the cost of a good or service and the quantity supplied for a given period.

(i) Agricultural Development Programme (ADP)
(ii) Farm settlement scheme
(iii) Agro-service centres
(iv) Research institutes

(i) Nitrogen fixing bacteria
(ii) Mulching
(iii) Decay organic matters
(iv) Through nitrosomonas

Waec 2019 Civic Obj And Essay Answers – May/June Expo Runs


(i) Constitution is supreme
(ii) Equality of the law
(iii) Presence of fundamental human right

(i) Immunity clauses: The constitution stands as a protection to the Executives & Ambassadors from being sued while in office, which puts them above some laws.
(ii) Military rule: This is the forceful take over of civilian government which gives them power to suspend the constitution and then promulgate degree which abuse the fundamental human Rights
(iii) State of emergency: It promote unlawful arrest and restrictions of movement which is an abuse of Rule of law
(iv) Age: its a limitation to equality before the law, since under age (below 18) are given special treatment and privileges that protect them from capital punishment when engaged in crime.

Justice is what we as a society regard as “right” based on our moral concepts of ethics, rationality, law, religion, equity and fairness, in other words, justice is the proper application of law.

the figure 1. Is called Lady justice and labeled part is explained Bellow
(i)Scales: Lady Justice is most often depicted with a set of scales typically suspended from one hand, upon which she measures the strengths of a case’s support and opposition.
(ii)Blindfold: Lady Justice has often been depicted wearing a blindfold. The blindfold represents impartiality, the ideal that justice should be applied without regard to wealth, power, or other status.
(iii)Sword: The sword represented authority in ancient times, and conveys the idea that justice can be swift and final.

Political apathy is the lack of interest in politics and political activities by the citizens of a country. When citizens are not interested in the political programmes of a country due to one reason or the other, political apathy is said to have taken place, e.g. the cold feet Nigerians often develop during elections which makes them not to go out to vote could be regarded as political apathy.

[Pick any TWO]
(i) Corruption will set in when dishonourable people fill the vacuum created by the absence of credible citizens.
(ii) There will be no accountability on the part of the
government because the people that are supposed to keep the government and the leaders in check have shown no interest in the affairs of the country.
(iii) There will be emergence of an undemocratic government
(iv) Political apathy breeds lawlessness and disorderliness in society

[Pick Any FOUR]
(i) Encouraging credible opposition in the political process in order to give the people wider choices.
(ii) Encouraging the people to become favourably disposed towards joining popular groups to enhance
(iii) Encouraging popular participation in elections.
(iv) Defending the fundamental human rights of citizens.
(v) Making leaders accountable to the people who elected them.
(vi) Ensuring good governance which inspires confidence in the citizens to participate in political activities.

(i)HIV: is a virus spread through certain body fluids that attacks the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells, often called T cells. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease.
(ii)AIDS: is the most severe phase of HIV infection. People with AIDS have such badly damaged immune systems that they get an increasing number of severe illnesses, called opportunistic infections.

(ii) Chills.
(iv) Night sweats.
(v) Muscle aches.
(vi) Sore throat.
(vii) Fatigue.
(viii) Swollen lymph nodes
(ix) Mouth ulcers

(i)They lie; They have to tell lies to mislead people about where they were when they were really out buying or using drugs or alcohol. They have to lie about where the hundreds or thousands of dollars went. The more they feel they need drugs, the more likely they are to feel the need to lie.
(ii)They manipulate; They try to encourage good decisions but the addicted person is on a destructive track. The allure of the drugs is so powerful, she feels she needs the drugs to function, to be able to get through another day, to not get desperately sick from withdrawal. So she manipulates those who love her the most
(iii)They are very likely to be engaged in criminal acts; Eventually, the money runs out. They have pawned or sold everything of value. They owe friends and family money. There are no more assets but the drugs or alcohol have to be obtained.
At this point, many people will begin committing crimes. Selling or manufacturing drugs are common ones.
(iv)An addict will shift the blame; this person may have lived their prior life as a highly responsible individual, drug addiction steals that quality away. Whatever happens is never his fault. If he gets fired from a job, it’s the boss’s fault, the addict was unfairly targeted. If he gets in a car accident, it was totally someone else’s fault. If he fails at some activity, those close to him will be blamed.
(v)An addict is very likely to become abusive; It’s tragic that an addict’s blame can even take a violent and abusive form. With the delusional thinking common to most addicts, he can perceive those around him as being threatening, dangerous or malicious. As he shifts the blame, he may physically, mentally or emotionally attack those he blames


Waec 2019 Government Obj And Essay Answers – May/June Expo Runs

Government OBJ:


(i)The media present all the programme and project of government go the people in the country
(ii)The mass media serve as an avenue through which political leaders champaign and present their manifestoes to the people.
(iii)The kind of party system in a country is made known to the citizens through the mass media
(iv)Every political jingle put forward by the political party and the political is revealed to the people through the mass media
(v)To generate opinion poll on public issues through mass media

(i)Earnest Ikoli
(ii)Samuel Akinsanya
(iii) Dr. C. Vaughan

(i)It promoted national unity by composing its members from several ethnic groups in Nigeria.
(ii)It fought hard for the political independence of Nigeria.
(iii)It arouse modern nationalism among Nigerians.
(iv)It led to the formation of other political parties like, NCNC (1944) , AG (1951) and NPC (1951).

The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) External link is a socio-economic development flagship programme of the African Union (AU), adopted by African leaders at the 37th Summit of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) held in Lusaka, Zambia, in July 2001. NEPAD is thus a vision and framework that facilitates and coordinates the development of continent-wide programmes and projects, mobilizes resources, engages the global community, Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and AU Member States in the implementation of these programmes and projects.

(i) Eradicate poverty,
(ii ) Promote sustainable growth and development,
(iii) Foster integration of Africa in the world economy, and
(iv) Accelerate the empowerment of women.

local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state

(i)Choice of leadership: Local governments give people the opportunity to elect their own people as their representatives in the local government council. These personnel exercise governmental powers on behalf of the people, understand their people more than ’outsiders’ and are accountable to the electorate.
(ii)Familiarity: Local governments are more knowledgeable and thus better equipped to handle cases involving religion, matrimony, land, chieftaincy disputes, history and communal clashes between different communities in their areas.
(iii)The link between the people and the government: Local governments act as a link between the rulers and the ruled. They educate the people on the policies of the state and national governments and give government a feedback on the response and needs of the people.
(iv)Experimentation of government policies: The local governments are often used as experimental grounds for testing the policies and programmes of the government. The tests are often carried out in selected local government areas to determine the suitability of such programmes.

(i)the hugh Clifford constitution of 1922
(ii)the arthur Richard constitution of 1946
(iii)the john macpherson constitution of 1951

(i)The constitution introduced a parliamentary system of government.
(ii)It established two legislative houses at both the federal and regional levels.
(iii)It retained the federal structure with the regions having residual powers.
(iv)The federal prime minister and regional premiers had executive powers conferred on them.

(i)Multi-Ethnicity : Nigeria is a country with a lot of ethnic groups. As a result of this, it has brought about the cry of the minorities clamoring for their own state.
(ii)Power Sharing: Formula Power sharing has been one of the main issue militating against federalism in Nigeria.

(i)Governmental powers are shared between the Federal and State governments.
(ii)Its operation is backed up by a federal constitution, which is usually written and rigid in nature.
(iii)It ensures equal representation of all groups.

(i)Voting: We study governments so we can make an educated decision when it comes to voting. This means that you are not just going to make your voting decision on a speech or tv program that you see.
(ii) Knowledge; Studying government gives you knowledge. You are in a position to know more about the government than ever before. If you do not study governments then you are not going to know all of the ins and outs of politics.
(iii)Future; We can control the future of our country, including political movements and government decision making. Studying government is going to ensure that you can make a difference.
(iv)Improvements; There is always going to be the option to make improvements within different governments. If a government does not have a clear idea on one of their policies, this can be changed and improved over time, and you can understand this when you study the subject.
(v)Career choices ; Studying the government is going to open many doors for you and you can decide whether or not you want to go into a career in politics (to make a difference as much as you see fit).

A citizen is a person who is a legal member of and owes allegiance to a particular country he/she resides in which he/she enjoys full civil and political rights and will be ready to put his life at stake in defence of its territory when occasion calls for that

(i) Defence of the country: A citizen should be prepared to defend his/her country when it is threatened
(ii) Service to the nation: A citizen should not hesitate to serve his/her nation in any capacity he capable when called upon to do so.
(iii) Civic responsibilities: It is also the responsibility of a good citizen to register during registration exercise and vote during elections if he/she is qualified to do so.
(iv) Assisting the law enforcement agents: A good citizen should always be prepared to assist the police and other law enforcement agents in reducing crime rate in the country by giving them useful information


Waec 2019 Chemistry Obj And Essay Answers – May/June Expo Runs

Chemistry OBJ:

(i)It is used in the sterilization of water for domestic and industrial use and in the treatment of sewage
(ii)It is used as a bleaching agent for cotton linen and wood-pulp

Preparation of hydrogen from water gas:
This is called Bosch process: In this process large quantities of hydrogen are produced from cheap raw materials namely water and coke when steam is passed over red hot coke (carbon) at about 1200C, a mixture of carbon(II) oxide and hydrogen ion and water gas is produced .Excess steam is then mixed with the water gas and passed over a catalyst iron(III)oxide at 450C.As a result the carbon(II)oxide in the water gas is converted by CO2 with a further yield of hydrogen
Endothermic reaction
H2O(g) + C(s)—> CO(g)

The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite
The ore of aluminium is purified by electrolysis to remove the impurities present
Carbon or platinum electrodes
Cryolite is added to remove the impurities present

Coal, coal tar, ammoniacal liquor


Limestone is heated to generate CO2 for the reaction: CaCO3(aq) -> CaO(s) + CO2(g)
Ammonia is used to make brine
NH3(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) -> NH4HCO3(aq)
NH4HCO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) -> NaHCO3(s) + NH4Cl(aq)

C6H12O6(aq) ——> 2C2H5OH(aq) + 2CO2(g)
On fermenting, the CO2 released, mounts pressure in the bottle and it scatters

Cu, Fe, Na, K
Increasing reactivity
Cu and Fe

A redox reaction is an oxidation-reduction reaction, both occuring at the same time
I – Redox
II – not Redox
III- not redox
IV – not Redox
v – Redox

C10H22—–>(cracking)—->C6H14 + C4H8
P is C4H8
| | | |
| |

| | |
H-C= C- C-H
P would be polymerized because it contain double bond

Hundi’s rule: Electrons occupy each orbital singly first before pairing takes place in a degenerated orbital
Aufbau’s principle: Electrons enter into orbitals in order of increasing energy

– NaH —> ionic
– H2 –> Covalent
– H2S –> Covalent
– NH4Cl — Vander waals
– NaH —> soluble (dissolve)
– H2 –> Insoluble
– H2S –> Moderately soluble
– NH4Cl — soluble
– H2S(g) + H2O(l) —> H3O^+(aq) + HS(aq)
– HS(aq) + H2O(l) —> H3O^+(aq) + S^2-(aq)

(i)Number of unpaired electrons=zero
(ii)J would be a good reducing agent
(iii)It is found in group 2. It is a metal. Metals are good reducing agent


– High temperature of 4500degree(c) or more
– High pressure
– Catalyst

– For decoration
– For protection

Calcium oxide (Cao) is alkaline and Hcl is acidic. The two react to form calcium chloride and water; instead of dry Hcl after that, it will end up with wet calcium chloride

This is an oxidation reaction. The acid oxidizes the iron (II) sulphate to iron (III). The baron gas evolved is Nitrogen (IV) oxide

(i) Zinc oxide with H2SO4
ZnO(s) + H2SO4 —> ZnSO4(aq) + H2O(l)
(ii) Zinc oxide with sodium hydroxide solutions
ZnO(s) + 2NaOH(aq) —> Na2ZnO(aq) + H2O(l)
Amphoteric property

(i) Have the same atomic number
(ii) Have different mass numbers

– Hcl

(i) H2S
(ii) SO2

Carbon-12 scale is the standard from which atomic masses of all nuclei’s are measured. It is used to ascertain one mole of a substance as the amount of substance which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 12grams of carbon-12

– The concentration of the resistants and products are equal
– The rate of the forward reaction is same as the rate of the backward reaction

Waec 2019 CRS/IRS Obj And Answers – May/June Expo Runs


Stephen was charged as a blasphemer of God, and an apostate from the church; therefore he shows that he is a son of Abraham, and values himself on it. The slow steps by which the promise made to Abraham advanced toward performance, plainly show that it had a spiritual meaning, and that the land intended was the heavenly. God owned Joseph in his troubles, and was with him by the power of his Spirit, both on his own mind by giving him comfort, and on those he was concerned with, by giving him favour in their eyes. Stephen reminds the Jews of their mean beginning as a check to priding themselves in the glories of that nation. Likewise of the wickedness of the patriarchs of their tribes, in envying their brother Joseph; and the same spirit was still working in them toward Christ and his ministers. The faith of the patriarchs, in desiring to be buried in the land of Canaan, plainly showed they had regard to the heavenly country. It is well to recur to the first rise of
usages, or sentiments, which have been perverted. Would we know the nature and effects of justifying faith, we should study the character of the father of the faithful. His calling shows the power and freeness of Divine grace, and the nature of conversion. Here also we see that outward forms and distinctions are as nothing, compared with separation from the world, and devotedness to God

(i)Sometimes God’s will for us is martyrdom
(ii)Christians are a befuddling contradiction to the world
(iii)God does his greatest work through “ordinary” people.

Peter advised the Christians living among non-Christians to abstain from fleshy lust since it battles against the soul.
He told them to engage in honest conversation among the Gentiles so that even if they speak against them, their good works would force the Gentiles to glorify God.
Peter told them to subject themselves to every human institution whether it is the Emperor himself or the Governors that have been sent to reward those who do good and punish those who do wrong. According to Peter, if they do this, they will put to silence the ignorance of foolish men.
He advised them to live as free men but should not use their freedom as a pretext to engage in evil. They should live as servants of God. They should honour all men, love the brotherhood, fear God and honour the emperor.
Peter explained that they would receive no glory if they are punished for doing the wrong thing, but if they are punished for doing the right thing and they endure, it is acceptable before God.
Peter concluded that Christ himself suffered the same faith. According to Peter, Jesus was reviled but he did not reply. Therefore, the people must copy Christ’s example.

(i) Disobedience
(ii) Sin
(iii) Lack of faith

When Jesus was arrested in the garden of Gathsemane, he was sent to the house of Caiaphas the high priest at that time where the Sanhedrin had met waiting to try him. Although their gathering was illegal according to Jewish law, they then agreed to kill Jesus. During the trial, they sought false testimony against Jesus in order to put him to death, but found none.
Later two false witnesses came forward and said Jesus said he can destroy the Jerusalem temple and rebuild it in three days but Jesus did not respond to any of the accusations and was silent.
The high priest stood up and said whether he had no answer and he still kept silent.
Then the high priest asked him if He was the Christ, the son of God. Jesus then responded by saying “that is what he has said and continued saying that they will see the son of man seated at the right hand of power and coming on the clouds of heaven.
The high priest the tore his clothes in anger and said Jesus has spoken blasphemy and concluded that they don’t need any witness again and therefore concluded that Jesus must be put to death.

[Pick Any TWO]
(i) People bear false witness against others due to jealousy
(ii) People bear false witness against others for favour
(iii) People bear false witness against others for fear of intimidation.
(iv) People bear false witness against others for financial and material gains

Amos denounced the high places of Israel and pronounced that God would rise against bthe house of jeroboam II with sword. Then amaziah, the priest of bethel, sent word to king jeroboam II that Amos had conspired against him and that the land was not able to bear all his words. He said that jeroboam would die by the sword and is isreal must go into exile. To Amos, amaziah said, o seer, go flee to the land of Judah, eat bread there, and prophesy there; but never again prophesy at bethel. Amos replied ! I am no prophet, nor a prophets son.I am a herdsman, and a dresser of sycamore trees. The lord took me from following the flock to go and prophesy to my people, is real. Therefore, hear the word of the lord. For ordering me to shut up, your wife shall become harlot in the city; your sons and daughters shall fall by the sword. Your land shall be parcelled out by line. You yourself shall die in and unclean land and is real shall surely go into exile away from its land.
Those who oppose God should be condemned for the following two reasons: The lord God is our creator and sustainer; its is condemnable for people to oppose him. Besides, the opponents of God are evil to others, and could serve as snares to the righteous.

(i)People complain about the men of God for their extravagant lifestyle.
(ii)People complain about men of God for their extortions from the congregation.
(iii)People complain about the immoral behavior of God’s men.

Moses is chosen by God to lead the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt and into the land of Canaan, which God has promised to them. Pharaoh then decides to seek the Israelites with chariots, and he catches them at Pi-hahiroth. Moses is commanded by God to hold his staff out over the water, and throughout the night a strong east wind divides the sea, and the Israelites pass through with a wall of water on either side. The Egyptians pursue, but at dawn, God clogs their chariot-wheels and throws them into a panic, and with the return of the water the pharaoh and his entire army are destroyed. When the Israelites see the power of God they put their faith in God and in Moses and sing a song of praise to the Lord for the crossing of the sea.

(i) Christians should learn from this incident never to doubt God in any situation
(ii) A great lesson Christians should learn from this incident is to always do what God commands and obey his prophets

(i)Khalifa Abubakar Sadiq
(ii)Khalifa usman bin Haffan
(iii)Khalifa Aliyu bin Abdulmuttalib
(iv)Khalifa Umar bin al khattab

Abu Bakr
The first caliph was Abu Bakr who ruled from 632-634 CE. Abu Bakr was the father-in-law of Muhammad and was an early convert to Islam. He was known as “The Truthful.” During his short reign as caliph, Abu Bakr put down rebellions by various Arab tribes after Muhammad died and established the Caliphate as the ruling force in the region.

Islam has taken a strong position against visitation of fortune tellers and the art of fortunetelling. The Islamic ruling with regard to a Muslim who visits a fortuneteller and believes what he (the fortuneteller) tells him or believes that the fortuneteller knows the unseen and the future, is that it is kufr (disbelief), according to the scholars. They based their evidence on the saying of Allah: “With Him are the Keys of the Ghayb (unseen); none knows them but He.”(Qur’an 6:59).
Allah also told Prophet Muhammad (saw): “Say! I have no power to bring good to myself nor avert harm but it is only as Allah wills. If it were that I knew the unseen, I would have multiplied the good and no evil would have touched me.” (Qur’an 7: 188).
Allah also said: “Say! None in the heavens nor the earth knows the unseen except Allah.” (Qur’an 27:65)
There are many similar verses in some other chapters of the holy book. But Allah, in some of the verses, said he revealed some of the knowledge of unseen to His chosen Prophets and Messengers in order to preach His message to the people.
Abu Hurayrah and al-Hassan bin ‘Aliy (as) both reported from Prophet Muhammad (saw) that he said, “Whosoever approaches a fortuneteller and believes what he says, he has disbelieved in what had been revealed to Muhammad” (Ahmad).
This is because such a belief assigns to creation some of the attributes of Allah with regard to the knowledge of the unseen and the future.
Islam also opposes any form of association with those who practice fortunetelling, except may be to advise them to give up their forbidden trade.
The prophet was reported by one of his wives, Hafsah bint Umar (May Allah be pleased with them), as saying, “The sallah of whoever approaches a fortuneteller and asks him about anything will not be accepted for 40 days and nights.” (Muslim)

Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
(i)Qul a’uzu birabbin naas
(ii)Malikin naas
(iii)Ilaahin naas
(iv)Min sharril was waasil khannaas
(v)Al lazee yuwas wisu fee sudoorin naas
(vi)Minal jinnati wan naas

(i)Say: “I seek refuge with (Allah) the Lord of mankind,
(ii) “The King of mankind,
(iii)”The Ilah (God) of mankind,
(iv) “From the evil of the whisperer (devil who whispers evil in the hearts of men) who withdraws (from his whispering in one’s heart after one remembers Allah)
(v) “Who whispers in the breasts of mankind,
(vi) “Of jinns and men.”

any evil whisper crosses the mind, a Muslim should immediately seek refuge with Allah, because Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And if an evil whisper comes to you from Shaitân (Satan), then seek refuge with Allah. Verily, He is All-Hearer, All-Knower. ” [Al Qur’an 7:200]
Apart from experiencing evil whispers, a Muslim should constantly seek refuge with Allah from the accursed Satan and his followers from among the jinn and mankind. A’ishah, the wife of the Prophet said:
“Whenever the Messenger of Allah went to bed, he used to recite Surah Al-Ikhlas, Surah Al-Falaq and Surah An-Naas (last three chapters of the Qur’an), and then blow on his palms and pass them over his face and those parts of his body that his hands could reach. And when he fell ill, he used to order me to do like that for him.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhari]
With this ends the series “Lessons from the Qur’an”.
All praise and thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of all that exists.
May the Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon His slave and messenger, Muhammad, and upon his family and companions.

The phrase ‘Allahu Akbar’ is called takbir .
‘Ihram’ means ‘imposition of limits’. Thus the
‘takbir’ just after niyyah is called ‘Takbiratul-Ihram’ , because it limits the man in his actions; now he cannot do any work except prayer.

The phrase ‘Allahu Akbar’ is called takbir .
‘Ihram’ means ‘imposition of limits’. Thus the
‘takbir’ just after niyyah is called ‘Takbiratul-Ihram’ , because it limits the man in his actions; now he cannot do any work except prayer. There are four conditions in it:
(a) It must be in the approved form, i.e. ‘Allahu Akbar ‘ without any addition or change and without joining it with other wordings.
(b) It must be in correct Arabic.
(c) It must be said while standing (details will come afterwards).
(d) Body must be in ‘tama’ninat’ (not moving, but still).
(e) Muwalaat : The letters and words should be recited one after another without gap.


Waec 2019 Economics Obj And Answers – May/June Expo Runs

Economics OBJ:


Price = $20
Quatity = 50kg

The firm’s profit = Total revenue – total cost = TR – TC
TR = price x quatinty sold
= $20 x 50
= $1000
TC = $12 x 50
= $600
Profit = $(1000-600)
= $400

Normal profit

Because it is equal to demand curve of a firm and demand of perfectly elastic
AR = MR = MC = Demand & supply Curve

(i) Both are falling at initial stage
(ii) Both of them are rising after they intersect at price of $10 and quantity of 40kg

Balance of trade = Total visible
Export – total visible = Import
Visible Exports = $m
Agriculture = 200
Minefal produce –
Capital goods –
Total $500

Visible Import: – $m
Agriculture –
Mineral produces –
Consumer goods 250
Capital goods 400
Total $650

Therefore Balance of trade = $500 – $650
Balance of trade = $150
It is unfavourable Balance of Trade because total visible export is less than the total visible import

Invisible Trade Balance = Total Invisible Export – total
Visible Import –
Invisible Export – $m
Insurance – 25
Banking – 30
Transportation – 25
Total $80

Invisible Import – $m
Insurance – 50
Banking – 75
Transportation – 85
Total = $210
Therefore invisible Trade balance = $80 – $ 210
= -$130
i.e – $130
it is an unfavourable invisible trade balance total invisible import is more than total invisible export

Balance of current Balance = value of total Export – Value of total Import
Total Export – $m
Agriculture – 200
Mineral produce – 300
Consumers goods –
Capital goods –
Insurance – 25
Banking – 30
Transportation – 25
Total = $580

Total Imports: – $m
Agriculture –
Mineral produce –
Consumer goods 250
Capital goods – 400
Insurance – 50
Banking – 75
Transport – 85
Total = $860
Therefore 580 – 860 = $280
It is a deficit current Account balance


Public debt refers to the debt of a country owes to its citizens or other countries or organization such as International Monetary Fund(IMF) and World Bank

(i)To finance budget deficit.
(ii) To provide employment opportunity
(iii) To reduce economic burden on tax payers

(i)A large domestic debt will limit influence the distribution of the income of the people.
(ii)it can reduce the availability of foreign exchange in the form of depleted foreign resistor.
(iii)A large external debit can make a country to be suspectable to the force

Distribution of goods is a process of making a product being produced or service available for a consumer or business user who needs it. This can be done directly by the producer or service provider or using indirect channels with distributors or intermediaries.

Consumers’ cooperative society is a society owned and operated by a grouo of ultimate consumers who pull teir resources together to purchase goods and services in large quantities and distribute them mainly to its members.

(i) To meet the need of consumers in quality goods and services at an affordable price
(ii) To produce goods, to provide households and production services including credit and issuance.
(iii) To provide services to its members
(iv) To raise the standard of living in a particular area or country

joint venture is a business entity created by two or more parties, generally characterized by shared ownership, shared returns and risks, and shared governance.

(i)Limited Liability
(ii)Restricted Trade of Shares
(iii)Separate Personality

(i)private foreign finance (external borrowing)
(ii)local private finance from banks
(iii)direct government finance, in the form of equity, credit, or subsidy capital

industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy. In other words The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry.

division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize. In other words they motive for trade and the source of economic interdependence.
economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.

(i)Internal economic of scale are the unit cost advantages from expanding the scale of production in the long run.
(ii)These lower costs represent an improvement in long run productive efficiency and can give a business a significant competitive advantage in a market.
(iii)They also lead to lower prices and higher profits
(iv)If long run average total cost curve (LRAC) is declining, then internal economies of scale are being exploited

Growing population is the increase in a population that occurs when the birth rate is higher than the death rate, or when immigration exceeds emigration, or when a combination of these factors is present. While declining population is a reduction in a human population caused by events such as long-term demographic trends, as in sub-replacement fertility, urban decay, white flight, or rural flight, or due to violence, disease, or other catastrophes.
Overpopulation refers to a population which exceeds its sustainable size within a particular environment or habitat while under population is a situation in which there are too few people to realize the economic potential of an area or support its population’s standard of living.

(i)Pressure of Population on Land: Over the last four decades from 1971 to 2001, the population of India has increased from 108.9 million in 1971 to 180.6 million in 2001. Correspondingly, the labour force engaged in agriculture has increased.
2. Low Per Capita Income: the average growth rate of population has been 2.2 per cent per annum. With the result that per capita net national product has been 1.9 per cent over this period.
(iii)Low Per Capital Availability 9f essential articles: With population growing at an annual average rate of 2.2 per cent, the per capita net availability of certain essential articles of consumption has been very low. The per capita net availability was 33.2 gms of pulses and 159.7 gms of food grains per day.; edible oil 7.5 kg., vanaspati 1.0 kg., sugar 14.5 kg. and cloth 30.9 metres per year in 1998.
(iv)Burden of Unproductive Consumers: The number of unproductive consumers is increasing in India. Unproductive consumers are those who are not employed but they do consume. They include children below the age of 15 years and old persons who are above the age of 60 years.

Waec 2019 General Mathematics Obj And Answers – May/June Expo Runs

Mathematics OBJ:

Section A: 1,2,3,4,5
Section B: 6,8,11,12,13

110ₓ = 40₅
change all to base ten.
110ₓ = 40₅
1x²+1x ¹+0x⁰ = 45¹+0*5⁰
x² + x + 0 = 20
x² + x – 20 = 0
Solve quadratically
x² + 5x – 4x – 20 = 0
x(x+5) – 4(x+5) = 0
(x-4)(x+5) = 0
Either x-4 = 0 or x + 5 = 0
x = -5 or 4
therefore, x= 4

15/√75 + √108 + √432
= 15/√253 + √363 + √144*3
= 15/5√3 + 6√3 + 12√3
= 3/√3 + 18√3
= 3√3/3 = 18√3
= √3 + 18√3

y2-y1/x2-x1 = y-y1/x-x1
Given : A(-2,7) and B(2,-3)
-3-7/2+2 = y-7/x+2
4(y-7)= -10(x+2)
4y-28= -10x-20
4y= -10x+28-20
4y= -10x+8
2y= -5x+4

(5b-a)/b/(8b+3a)/b =1/5
5-(a/b)/8+3(a/b) =1/5
8+3(a/b)= 5 [ 5-(a/b)]
3(a/b) + 5(a/b)=25-8

Total ratio =3+5+8=16
Ali’s share =3/16 * 420,000/1
Son’s of Ali and Yusuf’s share = N78,750+ N210,000
= N288,750

2^1 * 2^-3x=2^5(x-1)
-5x-3x= -5-1
-8x/-8= -6/-8

Since <PQR = <PRS = 90°
Using Pythagoras theorem
|PR|² = |PQ|² + |QR|²
|PR|² = 3² + 4²
|PR|² = 9 + 16
|PR|² = 25 PR = √25
|PR| = 5cm
Considering PRS
|PS|² = |PR|²+|SR|²
13² = 5² + |SR|²
169 = 25 + |SR|²
|SR|² = 169 – 25
|SR|² = 144
|SR| = √144 = 12cm

Hence the area of the quadrilateral = Area of triangle PQR + area of PRS
= 1/2bh + 1/2bh
= 1/2×4×3 + 1/2×12×5
= 6+30 = 36cm

No of red balls = 3
No of green balls = 5
No of blue balls = x
Prob.(red ball) = no of total outcome/no of possible outcome
Pr(red) = 3/3+5+x = 1/6
3/8+x = 1/6
6(3) = 1(8+x)
18 = 8 + x
X = 18 – 8 = 10
Therefore the no of blue ball = 10

Probability of picking a green ball
P(g) = no of green balls/no of possible outcome
P(g) = 5/3+5+10 = 5/18

F α M1M2/d²
F = KM1M2/d²
Given F = 20N, M1= 25kg, M2 = 10kg and d = 5m
20 = k(25)(10)/5²
250k = 500
k = 500/250 = 2
Expression is
F = 2M1M2/d²
Making d subject
d = √2M1M2/F
d = √2 ×7.5×4/30
d = √60/30 = √2
d = √2m or 1.41m

Draw the diagram
X+X+60+X+80+X+40+X+20 = 540(sum of angles in a Pentagon)
5x + 200 = 540
5x = 540 – 200
5x = 340
X = 340/5
X = 68

1/3x – 1/4(x+2)>_ 3x -1⅓
1/3x – 1/4(x+2)>_3x – 4/3
Multiply through by the L. C. M(12), we have
4x – 3(x + 2)>_36x – 16
4x – 3x – 6 >_ 36x – 16
-6+16 >_36x + 3x – 4x
10 >_ 35x
35x _< 10
X = 10/35
X = 2/7

Draw the triangle
|AB|/66 = sin35
|AB| = 66sin35 = 66×0.5736 = 37.8576

Draw the right angled triangle
|AD|/|AB| = Tan52
|AD| = 37.8576 × Tan52° = 37.8576 × 1.2799 = 48.45m
Height of tower = 48.45m

|AC|/66 = Cos35°
|AC| = 66 x cos35°
= 66 x 0.8192
= 54.0672

Tan = 41.86°
Angle of elevation of top of tower from c = 41.85°

130kg of tomatoes for #52,000
Half of the tomatoes
130/2 = 65kg sold at 30%
Profit = #52,000/2 = 26,000
#26,000 = 100%
X = 130%
X = 26000 × 130/100
= #33,800

Then 65kg was then sold at reduction of 12% per kg
Recall that the initial cost price = 52000/130
65kg sold at = 33,000/65
Then for 12% reduction
520 × 88/100 = 457.6/kg
The new selling price per kg = #457.6/kg

(b) 65kg – 5kg = 60kg
= #61,256.00

#profit = selling price /cost price × 1000/1
=61256/52000×100/1= 117.8
= 17.8%

ar² = 1/4 ……(1)
ar^5= 1/32 …..(2)
Divide eqn (2) by eqn(1)
ar^5/ar² = 1/32÷1/4
r³ = 1/32 × 4/1
r³= 1/8
r³ = 2-³
r = 2-¹
r = 1/2
Common ratio = 1/2
Put this into eqn (1)
a(1/2)² = 1/4
a(1/4) = 1/4
a = (1/4)/(1/4) = 1
First term, a = 1
Seventh term, T7 = ar^6

Given : X = 2 and X = -3
(X – 2)(X + 3) = 0
X² + 3x – 2x – 6 , 0
X² + x – 6 = 0
Comparing with ax²+bx+c = 0
a = 1
b = 1
C = -6

Given : siny = 8/17
Draw the right angle
From Pythagorean triple, third side is 15
Draw the right angle triangle
tan y = 8/15
tan y/1+2tany = 8/15/1+2(8/15) = 8/15/1+16/15
tany /1+2tan y = 8/31

Amount shared = #300,000
Otobo’s share = #60,000
Ade’s share = 5/12 × #(300,000-60,000)
= 5/12 × #240,000
Adeobi’s share = #300,000 – (#60,000 + #100,000)
= 300,000 – 160,000
Ratio : Otobo : Ade : Adeola
60,000 : 100,000 : 140,000
60 : 100 : 140
6 : 10 : 14
3 : 5 : 7

RT^0=RS^0=90° (radius o targets)
T^0S=2TU^0 (angle at centre = 2 time angle at circumstance)
Now RT^0+RS^0+T^0S+SRT^0=360°(sum of angle in a quadrilateral)
90° + 90° + 136° + x = 360°

Let tank B hold x litres
; Tank A hold (x+600)literally
Tank B holds 400 litres
Tank A holds (400+600)=1000litres

Waec 2019 Biology Practical Answers – May/June Expo

Please we beg you in the name of God, Allah or Anything you serve/believe in, start sending your MATHEMATICS SUBSCRIPTIONS today, try to subscribe today not tomorrow morning when everyone will be busy.
This is to avoid omission of your numbers. You can start subscribing immediately after BIOLOGY PRACTICAL. It is N600 MTN CARD to 09039642826.
Make sure your write the subject name. We will be sending password in the midnight like we always do. Thank You!!!

Sex of specimen P is Male
The wings of male cockroach are larger than that of the females and extend beyond the abdomen.

P – It can be found in dark place.
Q – It can be found in farm lands.
Adaptation of P
(i) Possession of antenna for detecting food.
(ii) Compound eye for wider view.
(iii) Possession of jointed pair of legs.

Adaptation of Q
(i) Possession of chitinous body cover for protection.
(ii) Presence of wings for flight.
(iii) Mandibular mouth part for chewing.

In a tabular form:
Specimen P
Dorso-ventrally flattened to allow passage through cracks.

Specimen Q
Possession of chitinous body cover for protection.
(i) Both have antenae
(ii) Both possesses flying wings
(iii) Both have chewing mouth parts

Biting and chewing
Grass or leaves


Kingdom – Animalia
Class – Aves
The specific location is the wings.

In a tabular form
Under Specimen H
-Light brownish in colour
-Obtained from animal.
-The barbs are joined.
-The shaft is made of cuticle.
-It acts as an organ of insertion.
-specimen is soft and fluffy.

Specimen J
-Green in colour.
-Obtained from a plant.
-Each leaf is separate from one another.
-The shaft is made of wood.
-Acts as an organ of photosynthesis.
-Specimen is hard.
(i) Both have shaft
(ii) Both have vane
(iii) Both have rachis

H – It is used for flying.
J – it is used for photosynthesis.

The light weight of the specimen.
The streamlined structure.
The smoothness of the vane.
Presence of green colouring material(chlorophyll).
Its position on the body of the plant.

The branch of biology that involves the use of specimen A, B,C,D,E and F is ecology

A – use for measuring temperature or determine the degree of hottest or coldness of the an object/organ/organism
B- for measuring the amount and volume of rainfall in an ecosystem
C – (i) to measure the length, height and width of an object /length
(ii)to measure the growth rate of ab organism
D- for collecting insect/creeping and crawling animal
E – for finding wind direction
F – To establish population of plants in an ecosystem

B – The specimen is stationed above ground on an open space. After rainfall, the volume of water found in the glass bottle is measured with a cylinder as the volume of rainfall
D – The net is skimmed on the water surface so as to collect the desired specimen


Specimen D
(ii) grasshopper
Specimen F

Waec 2019 Literature Drama And Poetry Answers – May/June Expo Runs

According to the poet in the above poet, the summer has many defects unlike his beloved. In other words proceeds to outline the ways in which she actually exceeds it. First, he says that a summer day is actually not as lovely or temperate as she is. Sometimes “Rough winds shake the darling buds” and “summer’s lease hath all too short a date”; in other words, summer can be somewhat extreme, even volatile, and it does not last very long because it eventually gives way to autumn. Further, sometimes summer can be “too hot” and then, other times, the sun goes away for a long time (when “his gold complexion” is “dimm’d”). Furthermore, nature’s beauty has a way of “declin[ing]” as time passes. The speaker’s love, on the other hand, lives in an “eternal summer” because her beauty will never die; he has immortalized her and her beauty in these lines, and so she is better than literal summer. Hence the defects of the summer is day makes it impossible to be compared to the poet beloved.

Please we beg you in the name of God, Allah or Anything you serve/believe in, start sending your MATHEMATICS SUBSCRIPTIONS today, try to subscribe today not tomorrow morning when everyone will be busy.
This is to avoid omission of your numbers. You can start subscribing immediately after LITERATURE. It is N600 MTN CARD to 09039642826.
Make sure your write the subject name. We will be sending password in the midnight like we always do. Thank You!!!

The poet use of rhetorical question beginning from In stanza 2, the poet laments further that if Africans ”Cry roughly” of their torments which started from the colonial times which he refers to as, ”… the start of things”, he wonders who will watch their ”large mouths” when they yell for help.
In stanza 3, the poet continues to lament that nobody will be emotional(represented by ‘heart’) enough to listen to their ‘clamouring’ and if by chance, they realize their predicament and grow angry, nobody will hear them as he terms any late realisation and anger as, ‘pitiful’. In stanza 4 & 5, the poet supports the reoccurring belief that the dead serve as ancestors and protect the living from evil forces. In these stanzas,the poet wonders that when the living dies (our dead) and meet the ancestors (their dead) whose advice has fallen on deaf ears and whose ‘wild appeals’ have been ignored, they (the living, now dead) would remember their warnings and regret not ever listening. The poet continues that they (the ancestors) left their signs on earth, water and air for their ”blind, deaf and unworthy sons” who see ‘nothing’ they have made. In stanza 6, the poet continues that since the Africans did not heed the advice of their ancestors, he wonders who will hear their ‘sobbing hearts’ when they ‘weep gently’.

Joseph Asagai courts the attentions of Beneatha. In trying to win her affections, he is persistent but never overbearing. He flatters her with gifts (something that George Murchison has not done); in addition, Asagai’s gifts are not meaningless trinkets but are things that are both useful to and desired by Beneatha — such as the Nigerian robes he clearly has gone to a lot of trouble to obtain. Asagai’s compliments to Beneatha are sincere and therefore believable. His peaceful ways and calm manner give Beneatha an appreciation of his views even when they disagree. Contrasted with George Murchison’s abrasive put-downs of Beneatha and George’s insistence on retaining his narrow-minded views, Asagai appears as Beneatha’s savior from the potential tragedy of her eventually becoming George’s wife. In other words Asagai is helpful and concerned about the welfare of others. He volunteers to assist in the move to Clybourne Park and offers much-needed consolation and good advice to Beneatha when she is at her lowest. He counsels Beneatha spiritually and emotionally, helping her to get back “on track” as she rails against her brother’s foolishness in having lost the money.
He was used in the play to make a radical point about race

ACP YAKUBU Yakubu presented in the play as an Assistant Commissioner of Police. He stands out as an incorruptible and honest police officer. He withstood pressures from his boss, the Commissioner to stop investigating Chief’s activities at the Ministry of External Relations. His investigations led to the arrest and prosecution of Chief, Ochuole, Madam Hoha, the Commissioner of Police and the corrupt Justice. In other words ACP yakubu, laments bitterly on why the judge frees Aloho. And ACP yakubu asks Ojo to work on the embezzlement and smuggling allegations placed against Chief Ade Haladu-Amaka, the minister.

Waec 2019 Commerce Obj And Essay Answers – May/June Expo Runs

Commerce OBJ:

(i)Insufficient Fund: When the amount written on a cheque is more than what the drawer has in his account in the bank.
(ii)The Death Of The Drawer: If the bank receives information about the death of its customer, the bank will not honour any cheque presented on the account of the dead customer, until further notice.
(iii)Irregular Signature: It the signature the drawer signs on the cheque differs from the specimen signature in the bank.
(iv) Non-Existing Account: Sometimes. swindlers who have no bank account but possess false cheque books may issue cheques to those whom they have swindled.
(v)Bankruptcy: if one is judged by a law court to be unable to pay his debts in full. the bank will dishonour any cheque presented, on behalf of that customer.

(i) To Correct Balance Of Payments Deficit
(ii) To Protect Infant Industries
(iii ) To Avoid Unemployment
(iv) Source Of Revenue
(v) The Standard Of Living Argument

(i) It results in increase in agricultural production
(ii) It brings about stabilization in agricultural product pricing
(iii) It improves agricultural output and quality

(i) Open outery: This is a tradition method of trading on commodities. It involves the use of natural voices, and other means like whistles, bells, trumpets, and flutes, etc to make the availability of certain commodities known to certain buyers.
(ii) Electronic means: This involves the use computer system to trade either nationally or internationally. The computer system enables the traders to do business successfully. The computer provides useful information on how buyers and sellers can communicate on all matters that borders on tradable commodities.

(i) Grading system
(ii) Warehousing
(iii) Clearing system
(iv) Standardizing

15 cartons of sweets @ N2,000 per carton
= 15 x 2000 = N30,000
25 cartons of milk @ N4000 per carton
= 25 x 4000 = N100,000
154 cartons of sugar @ N3,000 per carton
= 15 x 3000 = N45,000
17 cartons of soap @ N5,000 per carton
= 17 x 5,000 = N85,000

(i) Total cost price
= 30000
= N260,000
Les 10% trade discount = 10% x 260,000
= N26,000
Invoice price = 26,000
– (26,000)/134,000
Less 6% cash discount (8,040)
Cash paid N125,960

(ii) mark up = profit/cost price x 100/1
Therefore 20/100 = profit/125960
Therefore gross profit = 125,960 x 20/100 = N25,192
Selling price = cost price + Gross profit
= 125,960 + 25192 = N151,152

(iii) Net profit
Gross profit – Expense
Total Expanses
Rent and rates = N3,500
Salaries and wages = N8,000
Fuel = N2,000
Electricity = N1,500
= N15,000
Net Profit = 25,192 – 15,000
= N10,192

(i) Actuarial Science
(ii) Management
(iii) Chartered Accountancy (C.A)
(iv) Company Secretary (C.S)

(i)Provision of capital
(ii)Efficient management

(i) Extractive Industry: its the process that involve the extraction of raw materials from the earth to be used by consumers. The extractive industry consists of any operations that remove metals, mineral and aggregates from the earth.
(ii) Tertiary Industry: The tertiary industry is the segment of the economy that provides services to its consumers, including a wide range of businesses such as financial institutions, schools and restaurants. It is also known as the tertiary sector
(iii) Manufacturing industry refers to those industries which involve in the manufacturing and processing of items and indulge in either creation of new commodities or in value
(iv)Constructive industry is an industry that is involved in making finished goods from raw materials at a bigger scale. Constructive industry mainly involves works in the building sector such as building houses, hotels, offices, roads, banks, bridges etc.

(v)Window display

Personal selling can be defined as an oral presentation in a conversation with one or more potential buyers for the purpose of making sales.The aim is to inform and encourage the customer to buy or at least try the product

(i)It arouses interest of buyers:This is because the buyer will be given the opportunity to ask question about the suitability of the product
(ii)It creates product awareness:The product will be popular among the customers or consumers
(iii)product information gathered from personal contact can be used to develop product preferences based on consumer needs
(iv)Personal selling enables inputs at individual level to be gathered by the company executives which non personal cannot do
(i)It is a relatively expensive method of selling.This is so because high capital costs are required
(ii)It is an extremely labour intensive method:it requires a lot of labour to perform the personal selling

(i)Safe Delivery of Document;Important documents are delivered safely without getting lost in transit.
(ii)Door to Door Service: Courier companies provide door-to-door delivery services to its customers.
(iii)Render Services in all Location; They render services to both urban and rural areas.
(vi)Transportation of Load: Courier companies helps to carry bulky loads over short or long distances.

(i)Safety: Transportation by the means of railway ensures safety for the desired goods because unlike the road transports a train only stops at a desired station instead of the will of the driver.
Railway transport any day is cheaper as compared to air transport. As a matter of fact, railway transport is even cheaper than road transport because of the reason that goods in bulk quantities are carried from a desired destination to the other.
(iii)Increases Employment:
Railway transport helps people to carry cheap products from a place to another and sell them at high prices. As a result of this, a number of people who are unemployed find a source of their daily bread.
(i)Loss of Goods: Because goods in bulk quantities are carried chances of goods getting lost are high in case of railway transport as compared to air and road transport.
(ii)Unsafe for Fragile Items: Railway transportation is particularly unsafe for carrying fragile items like glass because these items can easily break at times when a train halts unexpectedly of when the train is speeding up at times.
(iii)Late Bookings: Because railway is the cheapest medium of transport, it is hard to find suitable bookings for the transportation of your goods. Railway transport is not suitable in cases of emergency.

Adverse or deficit balance of payment

(i)Foreign exchange control: Foreign exchange control involves the rationing foreign exchange in order to reduce balance of payment deficit
(ii)Expenditure reduction: This is used in order to cut down domestic demand and reduce imports
(iii)Expenditure switching: This involves the manipulation of exchange rates to induce people to patronize locally made goods.
(iv)Fiscal control: This involves the raising of tariffs i.e increase import duties in order to reduce balance f payment deficit
(v)Devaluation:Devaluation cheapens exports and makes imports expensive, thus improving balance of payments
(vi)Reduction of imports: The government can restricts imports by the use of tariffs, quotas and outright embargo on imports